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Wulong District

Wulong is located in the lower reaches of Wujiang River in the southeastern part of Chongqing. Wuling Mountain and Dalou Mountain are joined together. It is adjacent to Pengshui in the east, Daozhen County in Guizhou Province in the south, Nanchuan and Fuling in the west, and Fengdu in the north. There are many deep hills and valleys, mainly mountainous areas. The natural outline is divided into seven mountains, one water and two fields. The terrain is high in the northeast and low in the southwest. The Wujiang River runs from east to west across the whole territory and flows through sixteen townships, starting from the Muzong River in the East and the Daxi River in the west, with a journey of 80 kilometers. Muzong River, Furong River, Changtu River, Qingshuixi River, Shiliang River, Daxi River and other small tributaries from the north and south into the Wujiang River.Tongzi Mountain and Xiannushan Mountain in the north of Wujiang River belong to Wuling Mountain System, Baima Mountain and Danzishan Mountain in the south of Wujiang River belong to Dalou Mountain System. Mocao Bay, the main peak of the highest Xiannushan mountain, is 2033 meters above sea level, and the lowest Daxi estuary is 160 meters above sea level. Generally, the relative height is between 700 meters and 1000 meters. Except for a few flat dams in alpine and river valleys, most of them are terraced soil on slopes. Most of the soils belong to yellow soil and yellow brown soil, followed by purple soil. For a long time, Wulong has the name of "Yuqianmenping" because the areas in south of Chongqing and North of Guizhou ,can only passes through Fuling of Wujiang River, then transfers to the Yangtze River, or goes East through Datang Road of Guandao.

In 2018, the annual GDP of the region reached 17.88 billion yuan, an increase of about 6.5%; tax revenue was 820 million yuan, an increase of 3%; investment in fixed assets was 7.98 billion yuan, the proportion of private investment increased by 13.6%; total retail sales of social consumer goods was 4.48 billion yuan, an increase of 9.6%. We actively prevent artificial statistic, adjust structure and improve quality. Although the economic growth rate is lower than what we expected , it is higher than the average level of the city, and the economic and quality benefits have been further improved. Carefully implement the " theory -lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets" and "Zairianization and Radicalization Policy" and actively explore the effective path of transforming "lucid waters and lush mountains" into "invaluable assets", which was awarded by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment as the only national "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable asset" practice and innovation base.

The establishment of national ecological civilization demonstration zones, national health urban areas and national forest cities has been promoted in an orderly manner; the restricted area of ecological protection has been delineated at 834.63 square kilometers to achieve full coverage of the three-level "Hezhang system-person who appointed by central committee to take charge of the river administration and management"; the number of days of good air quality in urban areas has been 343 days; and the water quality of urban centralized drinking water sources has reached the standard rate of 100%. Wulong, with beautiful mountains and rivers, has picturesque view and elegant temperament. Overall efforts should be made on the two basic aspects of Rural Revitalization and urban upgrading, to optimize the production and living ecological space, to create a livable, occupational and tourist environment, to ensure overall social security, harmony and stability, and to continuously improve the quality of life of urban and rural residents. There are 6564 new jobs in cities and towns, and the registered unemployment rate in cities and towns has dropped to 1.3%. The pension and medical insurance coverage rates in urban and rural areas have been consolidated at more than 95%, and 667,000 people have been insured by social insurance. The average length of education has reached 10.5 years. 17099 people have been included in the urban and rural low-income insurance system, and 2049 poor people in rural areas have been alleviated out of poverty. The per capita disposable income of all residents has increased by about 10% to 22300 yuan.People's lives have undergone real new changes.

About the origin of Wulong's name. The old government of Wulong is located in Tukan. It is said that there is a big temple near the Yamen of old Wulong. There are five dragons carved on the pillars of the temple. These five dragons have been worshipped for hundreds of years, and some people have brightened up and burned money and paper. With the popularity of the legend of the Five Dragons, the small county was changed to the Five Dragons County. This is the origin of Wulong in folklore.According to historical records, "Taiping Huanyu Ji" said: "in the name of Wulong Mountain in Yijie". "Ming Yi Tong Zhi" contains: in today's walnut village, a mountain "runs like a dragon, and there are holes under it, that is, Wulong Mountain". In the thirteenth year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty (1380 A.D.), because it had the same name as a county in Guangxi Province, the name of "dragon" was changed to "long", which implied the meaning of "mighty and prosperous", and was renamed "Wulong".

Major historical events in Wulong. In the course of thousands of years of historical evolution, several major historical events have brought great impact on Wulong's economy, culture and people's production and life. First, in the Spring and Autumn Period, Wulong was a dependency of the Ba State. After the Yufu Ba people, Baihu ba people and Bieling ba people moved west to the east of Sichuan and entered the Wujiang River valley, they used the abundant local resources to pioneer the barbarism and establish the regime organization, creating a strong Yandan culture and Bachu culture.Second, during the Warring States Period, Sima of the State of Qin commanded three large-scale battles of "expelling Chu from the Fujiang River", and gained central Guizhou, which made the Ba culture, Shu culture and Chu culture blend and infiltrate into each other. Thirdly, after the establishment of Wulong County in the second year in Wude of Tang Dynasty by Gaozu . Opening up the official highway of the Tang Dynasty and setting up posts along the line have become an important channel connecting the Southwest Businessmen.Fourthly, in the late Ming Dynasty, Zhang Xianzhong's army fought fiercely against Eastern Sichuan, conquered Fuzhou, slaughtered Sichuan wantonly, and the Sichuan people were all slaughtered. In the early Qing Dynasty, the implementation of the migration from Hunan and Guangdong to Sichuan, immigrants brought advanced Central Plains culture, Jingchu culture and Wuyue culture, which further promoted the local economic and cultural prosperity. Fifth, from November 21 to 23, 1949, Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping led the main forces of the Second Field Army to defeat Song Xilian and Chen Kefei's Kuomintang troops in the Sixth War Zone in Baima Mountain, killed more than 3,000 enemies and captured more than 10,000 prisoners. They won the famous Battle of Baima Mountain and laid the foundation for the liberation of Chongqing and Sichuan.

There are some important historical and cultural celebrities related to Wulong. Although Wulong is a barren land for a long time, it has also met with celebrities in the department. First, Zhangsun Wuji (the head of Lingyan Pavilion, 24), Trusted by Li Shimin, one of the main planners of the Xuanwumen Incident. In the fourth year of Xianqing (659), ZhangSun Wuji, the president of Zhao State, was falsely accused by Xu Jingzong of the Ministry of Rites of "rebellion" by opposing Gao Zong's establishment of Wu Zetian as queen, and was demoted to Guizhou (Pengshui County, Chongqing City today). while passing through the estuary, he was forced to hang himself. After his death, Zhangsun Wuji was buried at the foot of Lingqi Mountain in Bodaoling on the Wujiang River in Jiangkou Town, Wulong County.Second, Liu Qiupei. Who was born in Miaoya, Wulong, a scholar in Hongzhi period of Ming Dynasty, was attacked by Liu Jin, a corrupt official, and then persecuted by Liu Jin and dismissed from office. He was a well-known honest hero and was the first Wulong prople who has been recorded into the official history of China.Third, Li Mingxi, a scholar in Qing Dynasty, was from Jiangkou, Wulong . officials to ZhongxianDaifu and Hubu Shangshu, were highly appreciated by Emperor Guangxu, who presented "Wenkui" Jinbian to him . Later, they were demoted to Jianwei County of Sichuan for failing to participate in the Reform Movement of Wuxu  Guangxu passed away for sickness while he was assigned to teachsalt-making method  in 23 years.Fourth, Wang Chaokui, the hero of the anti-Japanese war. Wang Chaokui, a native of Miaoya Township in Wulong, was a soldier in the Yangsen Department of the National Revolutionary Army stationed in Fujian in the summer of 17 years of the Republic of China. During the Anti-Japanese War of Kuomintang-Communist Cooperation, he was ordered to guard Xianggongling, Changsha, Hunan Province. He was then the battalion leader of the Kuomintang Major Camp. In the third Changsha Battle, he was the first soldier, was sent into the battlefield, and fought with all the generals. Because he was outnumbered, Wang Chaokui unfortunately died in the country, and was praised as "General with Broken Head" by Song Meiling.

About Wulong's regional culture. First, there are many cultural relics. There are 1563 non-movable cultural sites on the ground, ranking second in Chongqing. There are mainly historical relics such as Jiangkou Han Tombs, Tukan Shang and Zhou Sites, Fenglai Dashiqing Stone Forest Temple, Miaoya Fenghuangzhai, Liu Qiupai's former residence, Baiyun Academy, Jiangkou Li Jinshi's home stone carvings, Zhangsun Wuji Tomb, Yangjiao, Tukan and Jiangkou Ancient Town along the Wujiang River. There are also the former residence of Wang Chaokui, Pingqiao Peace Middle School, the Red Army Command of Shuanghe Second Road, the ruins of the Houping Soviet regime, the Red Army Ferry in Zhuzixi, Haokou, and the Battle of Baima Mountain.Second, rich regional culture. Although Wulong is dominated by the Han nationality, it also inhabits 12 minority nationalities, such as Miao, Tujia and Gelao. All ethnic groups intermarry and blend cultures to form a rich and varied folk culture. Wulong folk music can be divided into two categories: songs and instrumental music. The main songs are folk songs, weddings and filial piety songs. Its forms can be divided into labor folk songs, Life songs and folk songs. Labor folk songs are mainly grassland song, boatman's chant, stone worker's chant, lifter's chant and so on. Custom songs mainly include filial piety songs, wedding songs, etc. There are mainly children's songs, nursery rhymes and so on. Folk music mainly includes waist drum tune, leaf flute, Gong and drum playing and suona tune. Among them, "Yaping chuida", "Houping shan’ge" and "Xiannv shan shua luogu" are listed as the intangible cultural heritage of Chongqing. Folk dance is also rich and colorful, including dragon dance, lion dance, car lights, dry boats, lanterns, Lianxiao, bamboo lanterns, stilts, Nuo opera, Yao drum, Yangko, waving dance, etc.

Wulong has become a tourist attraction that enjoys the appreciation of people all over the country and the leaders’ attention . It is one of the rare areas in China with three gold-lettered signboards of "World Natural Heritage", "National 5A Tourist Scenic Spot" and "National Tourist Resort". When Chen Jiangong, Vice Chairman of the National Association of Writers, visited Wulong, he was so overwhelmed by the beauty of Wulong that he wrote poems On the spot: "What is the tremendous impact of stone breaking into the sky? The lotus water stains in the numerous mountains . Does a drunken person need too much liquor, once he stepped into Wulong,he will be drunk by the beauty already.Today's Wulong has the following characteristics: First, leaders pay attention to it. Xi Jinping, Zhang Dejiang, Liu Yunshan, Jia Qinglin, He Guoqiang and other party and state leaders visited Wulong successively. Zhang Delin, He Guoqiang, Huang Zhendong, Wang Yang and other Municipal Party secretaries all took Wulong as a direct contact point and gave us special love and affectionate support.Second, media attention. In 2011, four articles on the front page of People's Daily, titled "Making Ecological Articles for People's Benefit", reported on Wulong's typical practice of developing green economy and promoting people's prosperity. CCTV and People's Daily praised Wulong as a "model of green rise". Every year, hundreds of media publicized and reported on Wulong, and more than 100 delegations came to Wulong for study and inspection in and out of the city, districts and counties. Thirdly, tourists yearn for it. After 20 years of development, Wulong tourism has made remarkable achievements, carrying the banner of the city's tourism, and becoming a truly national tourism region. It has the following advantages.

Unique location plus convenient transportation. For a long time, Wulong's traffic has been relatively backward. In recent years, with the help and support of the Municipal Committee, Municipal Government and municipal departments, Wulong's traffic conditions have undergone tremendous changes. One is the train. On January 15, 2006, Wulong officially opened the train, which is very important for the party and state leaders to travel. They are mainly special planes and special trains. In February 2008, Jia Qinglin, Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and CPPCC National Committee, visited by special trains through the Chongqing-Huaihua Railway. The Chongqing-Huaihua Railway runs 49.82 kilometers in Wulong. The Chongqing to Wulong distance in the Chongqing-Huaihua Railway is 167 kilometers long. There are six stations in Wulong (White Horse, Yangjiao, Tukan, Wulong, Zhongzui, Huangcao).The second is expressway. On September 28, 2009, the Wulong section of Chongqing-Hunan Expressway was fully opened to traffic. So far, it is 137 kilometers away from the main city of Chongqing, about 1.5 hours by car. Third, waterways. Wujiang waterway connects East and west. After the completion of Baima Navigation and Power Junction, the maximum capacity of a single vessel can reach 1000 tons. Fourth, the airport. The Xiannushan Tourism Extension Airport has officially started construction and will be completed and put into operation in 2019. At the same time, 319 National highways, Diandao Road and Wuwu roads run through the north and south of China. Nanchuan-fuling Railway and Fuling-nanchuan Expressway have been opened to traffic. Interconnection network has been formed, with 100% of township and administrative villages being open to traffic.

The scenery is excellent, rare in the whole country. Bai Juyi, a famous poet of the Tang Dynasty, wrote such a poem in the face of the beautiful Wulong Wujiang River: "After rain, the sky is green in line with those hills, the autumn is crystal clear." Weng Ruomei, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty, praised Wulong's mountains and rivers. "The wonder of Wulong should be the top one among Shushan"Wulong scenic spot types are mountains (Xiannushan mountain, Baima mountain), waters (Wujiang, Furong river), forests (Baima mountain primitive forest), caves (Furong cave), wetlands (Huangying wetland park), stone forests (dolomite forest, Xiannushan stone forest), lakes (Xiannu lake, Furong lake), grasslands (Xiannushan grassland) and other rich natural landscapes, with the exception of the sea and desert. All landscape types are known as the World Karst Museum of Nature.The main scenic spots that have been developed already are: the world's largest and tallest natural bridges group - Three Natural Bridges; geological wonder - Longshui Gorge ground crack; mountain city summer palace, Eastern Switzerland and the earthly Garden of Eden - Xiannushan National Forest Park; the only cave listed in the World Heritage List in China - Furong Cave; water karst forest - Furong River and so on. Those are currently under developing listed below: the subtropical "biological gene bank" - Baima Mountain; the world's largest open area of Tiankeng - Zhongshiyuan Tiankeng. Those not yet developed ones are: the only eroded Tiankeng in the world - Houping Tiankeng; the largest and deepest vertical shaft group in the world - Tianxing Shaft Group; the longest cave in Asia - Tongzishan Cave Group; the rare cluster drifting in China - Muzong River, Huangbaidu drifting; the water paradise - Furong Lake; and more than 260 scenery in the densely pearl-shaped Wulong territory.

Xiannushan  National Forest Park, called -the Garden of Eden in the world. Xiannushan National Forest Park is 28 kilometers away from Wulong City, with an elevation of 1650-2033 meters and an annual average temperature of less than 11.2 degrees Celsius. Dense forests, vast grasslands, exquisite peaks, cool and pleasant climate, and exquisite snow and ice landscape show their unique tourism ornamental value.Xiannushan has a forest area of 330,000 mu, hundreds and thousands mu of natural lawn , known as "the first pastoral plain in South China". In spring and summer, there are blue sky, white clouds, green grass,singing birds,fragrant flowers, animals in groups, showing us a vibrant scene, a picture of ".under boundless sky,on vast plains,cows and sheep can be seen when the wind blows and grass lowers"; in winter, there is a white and shining snow, a clean and crystal world, which is eye-catching and loved by tourists.

Geological wonder - Longshui Gorge ground fissure. Situated in Xiannushan Town, 15 kilometers away from the urban area, the ground seam scenic spot is a typical karst landscape. The Canyon is 5 kilometers long and 200-500 meters deep. It is of great scale and momentum. The canyon has the characteristics of majesty, danger, steepness and beauty.The mountains,hills, canyons and running water in the scenic area constitute a perfect landscape picture. The cliffs on both sides of the canyon are vast, the rock walls are dangerous, the vegetation is dense, the ground crevices are extremely narrow, some can only pass through people, looking up at the sky, you can see a line of sky light; the river in the canyon is long, the springs and waterfalls are splashing, and the illusion is endless; the cave is huge, the stalactites are densely covered, and there are underground lakes, which is a good eco-tourism and exploration tourism scenic spot.

Underground Art Palace, Cave Science Museum - Furong Cave. Furong Cave is located on the Furong River in Jiangkou Town, 4 kilometers away from Jiangkou Town and 20 kilometers away from Wulong City. Furong Cave is a large limestone cave, formed in the Quaternary Pleistocene, developed in the ancient Cambrian dolomitic limestone, with a total length of 2700 meters, a large cave body with a width of more than 30-50 meters, of which the glorious hall floor area is more than 11,000 square meters. Furong Cave is famous for its numerous shafts, complete types of cave sediments, perfect shape and pure texture.Various kinds of secondary chemical sediments in the cave are abundant and colorful, including almost all types of stalactites, amounting to more than 70 kinds. Most of them are rare in the caves found at present, and have great ornamental value and scientific research value. Especially in the pool, coral-like and canine-toothed calcite crystal flowers, various forms of curly stone, calcite and gypsum flowers, aragonite flowers on the cave wall are rare in China, even rare in the world, gorgeous and delicate individuals, brilliant as a whole which makes people dazzling.Professor Zhu Xuewen, President of China Cave Association, commented that "Furong Cave is a magnificent underground art palace and a rich cave science museum". On June 27, 2007, Chongqing Wulong Karst (Furongdong, Three Natural Bridges  and Houping Tiankeng Groups) was considered and adopted at the 31st UNESCO World Heritage Conference and successfully listed in the World Heritage List, becoming the sixth  world natural heritage in China and and only one in Chongqing.

Water Karst Forest - Furong River. Furong River is a National Scenic Spot that integrates mountains, waters, caves, springs, forests and gorges. It has all the features of high,steep and magnificent . The clear water in the river bottoms can be seen clearly, trees on both sides of the river are luxuriant, with Precipitous mountain peak, the mountains are magnificent,leaves falling down  like fishing rod, the green tree reflection can be seen , monkeys playing around freely and the  birds are flying above waters. It is a rare large-capacity eco-tourism area in the south. It has been approved by the State Council as a national key scenic spot. The natural landscape and the humanistic landscape complement each other in the scenic area. The scenic spots have their own interests, among which Furong Cave and Furong River Grand Canyon are the most attractive.

The world's largest natural bridge group - Three Natural Bridges. Three Natural Bridges is located 20 kilometers southeast of Wulong City, 15 kilometers away from "Nanguo Muyuan" -Xiannushan mountain and 30 kilometers away from Furong Cave. It is superior in location and convenient in transportation. As a typical karst landscape, the natural Sanqiao spectacle has the characteristics of magnificence, wonder, adventure, beauty, seclusion and excellence. It is praised by exploration experts and geologists as "Earth Heritage, World Miracle".In the scenic area, three natural stone bridges are the most attractive. They are divided into Tianlong bridge, Qinglong bridge and Heilong bridge. The average height of the bridge is over 300 meters, and the span of the bridge is over 500 meters. It is rare in China and even rare in the world that three natural stone bridges formed within less than 1 kilometer distance .They are the largest natural stone bridges in the world. There stands abundant tress and green hills,steep cliffs over hundreds of miles above, green grass landing and bamboos swaying,birds singing over the falling water ,fragrance from the flowers everywhere within the area.three natural stone bridges, Sheshenya, Wangfeng Stone, LvYintang, Xiannu Cave and other attractions continue to constitute a perfect landscape , making people linger and forget all the troubles. The scenic spot was awarded the title of National Geopark along with Furong Cave.

It has excellent ecology and abundant resources. First, ecological resources are among the best in the city. The lowest altitude is 160 meters and the highest altitude is 2033 meters. It belongs to subtropical monsoon humid climate with distinct seasons and distinct three-dimensional climate. It is suitable for the survival of many kinds of animals and plants. The forest area of the whole region is 3.3 million mu, and the forest coverage rate reaches 62.6%, ranking the third in the city. The number of good air quality days has remained above 95% all the year round, ranking in the forefront of the city. Rare tree species include silver fir, metasequoia, Davidia and so on. There are also "Ginkgo King" with a tree age of more than 2000 years and a trunk diameter of 4.17 meters. Rare animals include leopard, panda, langur monkey, giant salamander and so on.Second, clean energy is abundant. There are more than 50 rivers and tributaries in the whole region. Muzong River, Furong River, Changtu River, Qingshui River, Shiliang River and Daxi River converge into Wujiang River from the north and South flanks. The water energy reserves are 2.4 million kilowatts, the development capacity is 1.9 million kilowatts, the wind power resources can be exploited 300,000 kilowatts, and the annual production capacity of shale gas is estimated to be 2 billion square meters. It is an important clean energy base in Chongqing.Third, the market for ecological products is in high demand. Wulong's ecological agricultural products are well received at home and abroad. Alpine vegetables are directly supplied to Hong Kong and exported to Russia, Korea and other overseas markets. Carefully cultivate and build a number of brands, such as dried yam bean, Tukan vetch powder, Jiangkou wild fish, fairy crisp peach, Yangjiaozhuyao date, fairy black tea,all with high market awareness. Fourth, there is a special concentration of labor resources. Over the next ten years, the dividend of Wulong's labor force will be released in an all-round way and maintain 100,000 labour force reserve.

The city is beautiful and full of vitality. According to the planning layout of "one center + two function groups + characteristic towns + farmers'new villages", the construction of landscape garden tourism new town was promoted as a whole. The built area was 22.42 square kilometers, and the urbanization rate was 42.4%. The central urban area pays attention to the ten major projects of functional improvement, quality improvement, distinctive features and fine management, and vigorously implements District expansion, old city transformation, traffic upgrading, Park construction, square matching, night scene lighting, parking lot construction, riverside road reconstruction, characteristic block building, passenger transport center construction, etc. The successful establishment of national health county town and National Garden County town is being actively created. Build national civilized urban areas and speed up the construction of beautiful and livable landscape garden cities.In 10 years, Xiannushan Group has built from poverty-stricken village with an area of less than 0.3 square kilometers and a population of less than 300 people into a new tourist city with a built area of 13.6 square kilometers, a permanent population of 30,000 and a peak tourism period of 180,000 people. It has successfully established itself as the only national tourist resort area in the city and is building an internationally renowned tourist resort. Baima Group has accelerated the construction of a new eco-industrial city, and the sub-center of the urban area has built an ancient tourist town, a cultural exhibition base of Wujiang River and a leisure tourism post station. Xiannushan Town has been rated as a famous tourist town with national characteristics and a key town in the whole country. Baima Town and Tukan Town have become key towns in the whole country. A number of famous cultural towns, new tourist towns and border trade towns have been built, and a number of beautiful and livable villages and traditional flavored villages have been built.

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